Un mecanismo de acción propuesto para los Doce pasos de Alcohólicos Anónimos. Luis A. Giuffra 1, a,b,c. 1 Washington University. St Louis, USA. a Professor. Los Doce Pasos De Alcohólicos Anónimos 1. Admitimos que éramos impotentes ante el alcohol, que nuestras vidas se habían vuelto ingobernables. 2. Marihuana Anónimo utiliza los Doce Pasos básicos de la. Recuperación establecidos por Alcohólicos Anónimos, porque se ha probado que el programa de.
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Step 11 promotes increased blood flow to the frontal lobes and contributes to reversing drug-induced hypofrontality. Therefore, the akcoholicos system senses the effect of alcohol as essential for the survival of the alcoholic.
Members of this group are able to generate abuse and dependence among users. Alcoholism, alcoholics anonymous, addiction. What do the intoxicants have in common, and how do they affect the brain?
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In the case of humans, the quest of the reward system to make addicts repeatedly use intoxicants results in the development of maladaptive behaviors lying, cheating, stealing, being selfish, etc. Made a list of all persons we had harmed, and became willing to make amends to them all. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives to the care of God as we understood him. In the case of the intoxicants known to man, the amount of released dopamine is typically much higher than the amount released by common pleasurable behaviors such as eating or sexual activity.
In a way, these maladaptive behaviors serve well the evolutionary goal to repeat what feels good. This Behavioral Compensation is therefore a form of behavioral rehabilitation that disarms the reward system of the tools maladaptive behaviors necessary to promote the use of intoxicants.
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Intoxicants therefore usurp and hijack the reward system of the brain, giving the organism powerful reasons to repeat using them despite negative consequences. These maladaptive behaviors are symptoms of the illness and not life-long character defects. These pleasurable experiences are essential for the survival and evolution of the species.
During sex, dopamine levels in the reward system double, making the animal eager to repeat intercourse and ensure the survival of the species.
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In the case of the Steps, however, there is no coherence between our understanding of how addiction affects the brain and why the Steps could help. This represents an obstacle for prospective members since it is not intuitive or straightforward to understand why following the steps can help maintain sobriety.
The author has no financial conflicts of interest to report. These maladaptive traits are actually quite useful to the reward system when trying to accomplish its main goal, repeating what feels good, which it equates with success for the individual and for the species.
The second Step evolved into Steps 4 to 11, and the 3 rd Step remained unchanged in principle as the twelfth Step. When the nuclei composing the reward system unaware of any negative evolutionary consequences of dopamine surges sense a dramatic increase of dopamine above and beyond what food or sex produce they immediately equate it with survival and evolutionary success.
Studies consistently show that frontal lobe activity especially the prefrontal cortex is decreased among addicted alcholicos, and that hypofrontality persists long months or even a few years after the individual enters a state of abstinence.
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Due to drug-induced hypofrontality, actively addicted individuals lack insight into their condition and its severity. There are about 30 million chemical compounds known to man, yet only about of them are intoxicants such as alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cocaine, hallucinogens, annoimos, etc. The Total Abstinence Society was founded in the s. Author House LLC; Numerous neuroimaging studies of the brain at work show that different types of meditation results in an increase in blood flow to the frontal lobes which can also be seen as a way of reversing the hypofrontality seen in addiction.
Coherence between the steps and what we ;asos about the neurobiology of the addicted brain can therefore be explained as follows: Twelve steps programs have been the cornerstone of addiction treatment in the US for over 70 years. Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him, praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out. Repeated sexual activity feels good and, by engaging in intercourse, animals pass on their genes and promote the survival of the species.
Over millions of years of evolutionary history, repeating what feels good is synonymous with success.
Having had a 1 awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics, and to practice these principles in all our affairs. Steps and step 12 promote the practice of opposite, compensatory behaviors: This framework will be better understood if we review Dr. It has been criticized and misunderstood, yet voices against AA have failed to slow down its progress and success.
This prompts the animal to eat regularly, guaranteeing their survival. For the addict, the drug is survival.